What is the difference between Zamindari Ryotwari and Mahalwari System ?

What is the difference between Zamindari Ryotwari and Mahalwari System


Zamindari System

  • Zamindari System was introduced by Cornwallis in 1793 through Permanent Settlement Act.
  • It was introduced in provinces of Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and Varanasi.
  • Also known as Permanent Settlement System.
  • Zamindars were recognized as owner of the lands. Zamindars were given the rights to collect the rent from the peasants.
  • The realized amount would be divided into 11 parts. 1/11 of the share belongs to Zamindars and 10/11 of the share belongs to East India Company.

Ryotwari System

  • Ryotwari System was introduced by Thomas Munro in 1820.
  • Major areas of introduction include Madras, Bombay, parts of Assam and Coorgh provinces of British India.
  • In Ryotwari System the ownership rights were handed over to the peasants. British Government collected taxes directly from the peasants.
  • Land owner has right to sub-let his landholdings- to transfer, mortgage or sell it He is not evicted from his holdings by the Government so long as he pays the state demand of land revenue.
  • The revenue rates of Ryotwari System were 50% where the lands were dry and 60% in irrigated land

Mahalwari System

  • Mahalwari system was introduced in 1833 during the period of William Bentick.
  • It was introduced in Central Province, North-West Frontier, Agra, Punjab, Gangetic Valley, etc of British India.
  • The Mahalwari system had many provisions of both the Zamindari System and Ryotwari System.
  • In this system, the land was divided into Mahals. Each Mahal comprises one or more villages.
  • the land was not owned by an individual be it zamindar or any cultivator but by a group of estates or villages called Mahal
  • The Mahal was collectively known as the landlord and revenue was collected from village headman or lambardar.

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