What is the difference between National park biosphere reserve

Difference Between National Park,Wildlife Sanctuary,Biosphere Reserve,Protected forest,Reserved Forest,Tiger Reserve,Ecologically Sensitive Areas

National Park

  • No human activity or settlement allowed.
  • activities like grazing, hunting , forestry or cultivation, encroachment, destruction of habitats and other activities are strictly prohibited.
  • most national parks provide outdoor recreation, camping opportunities and are designed to educate the public on the importance of conservation activities.
  • covered under the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.

Wildlife Sanctuary

  • People are not allowed to live (some exceptions though) but some human activities are allowed, such as grazing, firewood collection.
  • Tourism is permitted.
  • A Sanctuary can be upgraded as a National Park. However a National Park cannot be downgraded as a Sanctuary.
  • covered under the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.

Biosphere reserve

  • Multi-purpose protected areas
  • all plants and animals are preserved in its natural habitat. that is, both the flora and fauna are protected
  • it promotes research in ecological conservation and environment preservation
  • its aim is also to provide facility for education & awareness.
  • People are allowed to live, own private land and carry on their traditional activities. (In the outer-zone)
  • may have one more national parks or wildlife sanctuaries in it.
  • not specifically defined by any Parliamentary law, but derived from UNESCO’s Man and Biosphere Program (1972).

Protected and Reserved Forest

Protected Forest

  • an area notified under the provisions of Indian Forest Act or State Forest Act. It has limited degree of protection.
  • Outside activities allowed unless mentioned
  • covered under the Indian Forest Act, 1927

Reserved Forest

  • an area notified under the provisions of Indian Forest Act or State Forest Act. It has full degree of protection.
  • Outside activities not allowed unless mentioned
  • covered under the Indian Forest Act, 1927

Tiger Reserve

  • legally protected areas for tigers
  • covered under the Wildlife (Protection) Amendment Act, 2006.
  • These are also notified by state governments, but on the recommendation of a Central Authority- the National Tiger Conservation Authority.

Ecologically Sensitive Areas

  • Ecologically Sensitive Areas’ are areas under human use, sometimes quite intense human use such as generation of thermal power etc
  • ESAs are to be viewed as areas where human activities will continue, but be prudently regulated under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.
  • ESAs are not at all meant to stop development in ways that would hurt local people, but to ensure that development is environment friendly and people oriented, as well as serve to preserve the ecological heritage on a long term basis
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