CONSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENTS

Pitt’s India Act (1784) Importance of Pitt’s India Act The Act of 1786
Charter Act of 1793
Charter Act of 1813
Charter Act of 1853
Basic Tenets of India’s Foreign Policy (1947-1961) Some Important Acts and year of Formation

 When the officials of the East India Company acquired control over Bengal in 1765 they had little intention of making any innovations in its administration.
 They only desired to carry on profitable trade and to collect taxes for remission to England.
 From 1762 to 1772 Indian officials were allowed to function as before but under the overall control of the British governor and British officials.
 In 1772 the company ended the dual government and undertook to administer Bengal directly through its own set of officials.
 The East India Company was at this time a commercial body designed to trade with the East.
 But during the period that elapsed between the Pitt’s India Act (1784) and the Charter Act of 1833 the
company was gradually relieved of its long held trading privileges in the east.
 Simultaneously it grew to be the paramount power in India responsible for the government of a very large population spread over an immense area.
 The English realized that if the country was to supply regular revenue it had to be properly governed.
 The Regulating Act of 1773 was a first step in this direction.
 Warren Hastings the first governor-general under the provisions of the Act tried to maintain as much of the structure of the Mughal administration as possible.
 The machinery of government went on as before; the British were left free to concentrate on revenue collection and trade.
 Hastings successor Lord Cornwallis changed all this.
 He scrapped the old system replacing the new in which the British openly ruled Bengal.
No Act Year

1. Regulating Act 1773

2. Pitts India Act 1784

3. The Charter Act 1793

4. The Charter Act 1813

5. The Charter Act 1833

6. The Charter Act 1853

7. The Act for the better govt of India 1858
8. The Indian Councils Act 1861
9. The Indian Councils Act 1892
10. Minto-Morley Reforms 1909
11. The Government of India Act 1919
12. The Government of India Act 1935
13. Basic Tenets of India’s Foreign Policy 1947-1961

Pitt ’s Ind ia Act (1784)
 The Act of 1784 introduced changes mainly in the company’s home government in London.
 It greatly extended the control of the State over the Company’s affairs.
 It provided for a Board of Control of 6 privy councilors.
 All civil, military and revenue affairs were controlled through this board.
 Directors were to retain the right of making appointment to different offices in India.
 They were also given the power of revising and reviewing the acts of the Indian administration.
 The court of proprietors was deprived of its right of overriding the decisions of the Court of Directors.
Governor-General was to be appointed by the Directors with the approval of the Crown.
 The Act disapproved the policy of intervention as followed by the servants of the Company in India.
 It was declared that the official offenders were not to be pardoned if they were found guilty of having committed any offence.

 Governor General in Council was given the power of controlling and directing the several presidencies.
 The members of the Council of Governor –General were reduced to three from four. Governors of
Bombay and Madras were completely under Governor General.
Imp or tance of Pit t’s In d ia Act
 It brought many important changes in the constitution of the Company.
 It constituted a dept of state in England known as the Board of Control whose special function was to control the policy if the Court of Directors.
 The Act helped the unification of India by making the Governor-General supreme over the Governors of the other presidencies.
 The deletion of the one member from the Executive Council of the Governor-General made his position stronger.
 The British Parliament claimed supremacy over the possessions of the Company in India.
 This Act made it clear that Company’s direct relation is with trade and not with politics.

The Act of 1786
 In 1786 Pitt brought another bill in the Parliament relating to India in a bid to prevail upon Cornwallis to accept the Governor Generalship of India. Cornwallis wanted to have the power of both the Governor General and the Commander in Chief.
 The provisions of the Act were The Governor general got in special cases relating to peace, defence or well being of Indian empire, the power to override the majority of the council.
 The Governor General now became the effective ruler of British India under the control of the Board and the Directors.
 Stage by stage the control of British Parliament over the country increased.
Charter Act of 1793
 The English East India Company was given a new Charter in 1793.
 The Company’s commercial privileges were extended for another twenty years.
 The governor-general and the governors were given the power to override their councils.
 The power had been given specially to Cornwallis in 1786.
 The control of Governor General over the Presidencies of Madras and Bombay was emphasized.
Governor General was given the power to appoint a vice president of his executive council from the members of the council.
 The Commander in Chief was not to be a member of the council of the Governor General unless he was specially appointed to a member by the court of directors.

 The jurisdiction of the Calcutta Supreme Court was extended to the high seas.
 Power was given to appoint members of the civil service as justices of the Peace, to appoint scavengers for the Presidency towns to levy a sanitary rate and to forbid the sale of liquor with out a licencse.
 The Act tried to regulate the finances of the company.
 A particular amount was assumed to be the annual surplus of the company.
Charter Act of 1813
 By 1813 when renewal of the Company’s charter was due there were elaborate discussions about the justification of the commercial privileges enjoyed by the company.
 The extent of the company’s territories in India had so much expanded that it was considered to be
impossible for it to continue both a commercial and political functionary.
 Englishmen demanded a share in the trade with India in view of the new economic theories of laissez faire and the continental system introduced by Napolean.
 The Englishmen demanded the termination of the commercial monopoly of the company.
 The Act of 1813 renewed the charter of the East India Company for 20 years.

 The company was deprived of its monopoly trade with India but she was to enjoy her monopoly of trade with China for 20 years.
 Trade was thrown open to all British subjects the company retaining only its monopoly over tea and the china trade.
 While offering the company’s right to the territorial possession and revenues of India, the Act
proclaimed the sovereignty of the crown over them.
 The Indian administration was asked to maintain separate accounts for its commercial and political activities.

 The Directors kept their rights of patronage but all important appointment were henceforth to be subject to the approval of the crown.
 The Act marks the beginning of an ecclesiastical establishment in India for missionaries were now permitted to settle in the country.
 An educational policy was also initiated by the grant of Rs one lakh out of the Company’s Indian
revenues for the encouragement of education, literature and science.
 Local governments of India were given the right of levying taxes on their subjects and punishing those not paying them.
The Charter Act of 1853
 British Parliament was called upon to renew the Charter of the Company in 1853.
 The Parliament had in the preceding year appointed two committees to go into the affairs of the
Company and on the basis of their reports the Charter Act of 1853 was framed and passed.
 According to the new Act the law member was made a full member of Executive Council of the
Governor General.
 Governor- General was given power to nominate a vice president of his council.
 The Act provided that the salaries of the members of the Board of Control ,its secretary and other officers would be fixed by the British Government but would be paid by the company.
 Power was given to the court of directors to constitute a new presidency.
 Power was also given to alter and regulate from time to time the limits of the various provinces.
 This power was used to create the Punjab into a Lieutenant Governorship.

 The number of the members of the courts of Directors was reduced from 24 to 18 out of which 6 were to be nominated by the crown.
 Power was given to the court of directors to constitute a new presidency.
 Power was also given to alter and regulate from time to time the limits of the various provinces.
 The Charter Act of 1853 renewed the powers of the company and allowed it to retain possession of the
Indian territories.
 The Act of 1853 marked the beginning of a Parliamentary system in India. No Indian element was associated with the Legislative Council.

B asic Tenets of In dia’s For eign Poli cy (1947 -1961)

 India emerged as an independent nation on 15th August 1947 and it was an epoch making phenomena for millions of Indian citizens.
 The Indian government adopted a well thought out and well planned foreign policy after assuming political powers in India.
 The basic tenets of India’s foreign policy had been influenced by socio-cultural, economic and political conditions of India and the world.
 It reflected the rich Indian cultural values and the urges and aspirations of Indian citizens.
 The policy was based upon the principle of mutual co-existence.
 India believes in respecting the identity of other nations and had always been active to preserve her own identity.
 Indian Foreign Policy is also characterized by firm belief in the efficacy of peaceful methods to resolve the mutual international differences.
 India had never supported militarism and never used it as an instrument of foreign policy.
 India believes in the principle of equality of nations and had always been against the discrimination among the nations on the basis of geographical size, economic strength and military power.
 The spirit of internationalism also characterized the foreign policy.
 Indian leadership had always believed in the efficacy of closer international cooperation among the nations to ensure the mutual progress.
 Non –alignment with any of the power blocks was another important feature of the foreign policy after independence.
 At the time of Indian independence cold war had already begun within the communist bloc led by
Soviet Union and Capitalist bloc by USA.
 Indian leadership decided to stay away from bloc policies and pursued the politics of non-alignment.
India was the founding member of NAM started in 1961.
 Indian foreign policy was secular and ideologically neutral.
 India had never allowed its foreign policy to be dominated by either the capitalist or the communist ideology.
 India had maintained close cooperation with both the capitalist and communist nations.
 Maintaining an independent opinion on international issues had been another important feature of the
Foreign policy.
 India had always cherished her independence and had never allowed its foreign policy to be influenced by either pressure or inducements offered by the powerful nations of the world.
 Non-interference in the internal matters of other nations had been basic tenet of Indian Foreign policy
ever since India’s independence.
Mysore Wars
 The state of Mysore rose to prominence in the politics of South India under the leadership of Haider
Ali.

 In 1761 he became the de facto ruler of Mysore though the Hindu ruler remained as the nominal sovereign who was shown to the public once a year.
 The war of successions in Karnataka and Hyderabad, the conflict of the English and the French in the South and the defeat of the Marathas in the Third battle of Panipat (1761) helped him in attending and consolidating the territory of Mysore.
 Hyder Ali was defeated by Maratha Peshwa Madhav Rao in 1764 and forced to sign a treaty in 1765.
 He surrendered him a part of his territory and also agreed to pay rupees twenty eight lakhs per annum.
 The Nizam of Hyderabad did not act alone but preferred to act in league with the English which resulted in the first Anglo-Mysore War.
1. The First Anglo-Mysore War (1767-69)
2. Treaty of Madras
3. The Second Anglo-Mysore War (1780-1784)
4. Treaty of Mangalore
5. The Third Anglo-Mysore War (1789-1792)
6. Treaty of Seringapatam
7. The Fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1799)
The First Anglo-Mysore War (1767-69)
 The main causes of this war were Haider’s ambition to drive the British away from the Carnatic and finally from India and the British realization of the threat posed to them by Haider.
 A tripartite alliance was formed against Haider by the British, the Nizam and the Marathas.
 Haider’s success in breaking the alliance and declaration of war on the British.
 The war ended with the defeat of British.
 The panic-stricken Madras government concluded the humiliating Treaty of Madras in 1769 on the basis of mutual restitution of each other’s territories and a defensive alliance between the two parties committing the English to help Hyder Ali in case he was attacked by another power.

Treaty of Madras
 It was signed by Haider Ali and the allies consisting of the Company, the Raja of Tanjore, and the
Malabar ruler.
 It provided that Mutual restitution of conquests takes place except for Karur and its districts which were to be retained by the Mysore ruler.
 In case either of the parties was attacked the other would rally to its assistance.
 All the captured employees of the Madras government were to be released by Haider Ali The trade privileges.

The Second Anglo-Mysore War (1780-1784)
 The treaty of 1769 between Hyder Ali and the English company proved more in the nature of a truce and Hyder Ali accused the company of not observing the terms of the defensive treaty by refusing to help him when the Marathas attacked Mysore in 1771.
 Haider found the French more helpful than the English. Further in 1778 English in India seized the French settlements including Mahe a port which was very crucial for Haider Ali for the entry of supplies. Haider Ali tried to take Mahe port but in vain.
 He arranged a joint front with the Nizam and the Marathas against the common enemy -the English
East India Company. The war lasted from 1780-1784.
 But he died in 1782 and was succeeded by his son Tipu Sultan.
 Tipu continued the war for another year but absolute success eluded both the sides.
 Tired of war the two sides concluded peace Treaty of Mangalore.
 By this Treaty it was decided that English would return Srirangapatnam to Tipu and Tipu would handover Fort of Badnur to English.

Treaty of Mangalore
According to the Treaty:

 The two parties were not to assist each other’s enemies directly or indirectly nor make war on each other’s allies.
 The trade privileges granted to the company by Haider Ali in 1770 were to be restored although no additional benefits would accrue.
 Both sides agreed to a mutual restoration of possessions (barring the forts of Amboorgur and Satgur)
and Tipu undertook not to make any claims on the Carnatic in future.
 Tipu agreed to release all prisoners of war.
 Tipu was to restore the factory and privileges possessed by the Company at Calicut until 1779.
The Third Anglo-Mysore War (1789-1792)
 War between Tipu Sultan and British began in 1789 and ended in Tipu’s defeat in 1792. Even though Tipu fought with exemplary bravery, Lord Cornwallis the Governor General had succeeded through shrewd diplomacy in isolating him by wining over the Marathas, the Nizam and the rulers of Travancore and Coorg.
 This war again revealed that the Indian powers were short-sighted enough to aid the foreigner against another Indian power for the sake of temporary advantages.
 The Third Mysore War came to an end by the Treaty of Srirangapatnam in March 1792.
 This treaty resulted in the surrender of nearly half of Mysore territory to the British.

 The British acquired Baramahal, Dindigul and Malabar while the Marathas got territory on the
Tungabhadra side and the Nizam acquired territories from the Krishna to beyond the Pennar.
 Tipu also had to pay a war indemnity of over three crores of rupees.
Treaty of Seringapatam
 It was signed by Tipu on the one hand and the English and their allies (Nizam and the Peshwa) on the
other. The Treaty stipulated that:
 The earlier treaties between the English and the rulers of Mysore stood confirmed.
 Tipu was to cede half his territories where where to be shared among the three allies.
 Tipu was to make immediate payment of Rs 1.6 crore out of the total indemnity agreed upon (Rs 3.6 crore) while the remainder (2 crore) was to be given in three instalments.
 Tipu was also to order the release of all prisoners of war.
 Pending fulfilment of these terms two of his sons were to be detained as British hostages.
 In terms of territory, the Nizam obtained the lion’s share while the Marathas also extended their boundary to the Tungabhadra and the Krishna.
 The English secured large chunks on the Malabar Coast from the north of Cannaore to the south of the
Ponanni River with Coorg as its defensive hinterland.
 In addition they obtained the Baramahal district as well as Dindigul.
The Fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1799)
 With his defeat in the third Anglo-Mysore war, Tipu was burning with revenge.
 He wanted to get back his territory and to achieve that objective he carried on negotiations with the
French and Zaman Shah of Kabul.
 Tipu wanted his allies to expel the English.
 Lord Wellesley after making Subsidiary Alliance with the Nizam asked Tipu Sultan to accept the same but he refused.
 Mysore was attacked from two sides.
 The main army under General Harris supported by Nizam’s subsidiary force under Arthur Wellesley attacked Mysore from the east while another army advanced from Bombay.

 Tipu was at first defeated by the Bombay army and was later on defeated by the General Harris at
Mallavalli. Tipu died fighting bravely.
 The members of his family were interned at Vellore.
 A boy of the earlier Mysore royal family was installed on the Gaddi of Mysore and a Subsidiary
Alliance was imposed.
 Thus the fourth Mysore War destroyed the state of Mysore which was ruled by Haider Ali 33 years back.

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