KHILJI DYNASTY

Jalal-ud-din Firoz Khilji (1290-1296 A.D.)

 He followed the policy of peace after he became the ruler.
 He wanted to rule without bloodshed.
 Hence, he was called as Clemency Jalal-uddin.

Domestic Policies

 Jalal-ud-din suppressed a revolt by Malik Chhajju at Kara.
 He appointed his nephew and son-in law Ala-ud-din Khilji as the Governor of Kara.

Mongol Invasion

1. Jalal-ud-din defeated and arrested the Mongols who tried to advance up to Sunam in 1292 A.D.

End of Jalal-ud-din

1. Jalal-ud-din’s policy of peace was not liked by the young Khiljis.
2. Ala-ud-din Khilji the son-in-law of Jalal-ud-din treacherously murdered him

Ala-ud-din Khilji (1296-1316 A.D.)

Ala-ud-din Khilji ascended the throne in 1296A.D.

Conquests in the North

 Ala-ud-din Khilji sent a strong army under his generals Ulugh Khan and Nusrat Khan to conquer Gujarat and they succeeded in doing so
 Ranthambore was captured and its ruler Hamir Deva was killed.
 Chittor, Malwa, Mandu, Ujjain, Dhar, Chanderi, Marwar and Jalor were also captured.

Conquest in the South

 Ala-ud-din Khilji was the first Sultan who invaded South India.
 He sent his most trustworthy general, Malik Kafur against the rulers of the south.

 Ramachandra Deva, the Yadava ruler of Devagiri, Prataprudra-ll of Warangal and Vira
Ballala-lll, the Hoysala ruler were defeated
 He reached as far as Rameswaram and built a mosque there.
 The kingdoms of the south accepted the over lordship of Ala-uddin khilji and agreed to pay tribute to him.

The Mongol Invasion

• Ala-ud-din successfully repelled the Mongol invasion more than a dozen times.

Domestic Policies of Ala-ud-din Khilji

 Ala-ud-din believed in the Divine Right Theory of Kingship.
 He introduced four ordinances to prevent frequent rebellions.
 He confiscated religious endowments
 Free grants of lands
 Reorganized the spy system,
 Prohibited social parties and use of wine
 A permanent standing army was organized by Ala-ud-din.
 Introduced the system of branding of horses and descriptive roll of individual soldiers to prevent corruption.
 The prices of essential commodities were fixed which less than the usual market rates was.
 Black marketing was strictly prohibited.
 Revenue was collected in kind and not in cash.
 Revenue was collected in kind and not in cash.
 He followed a harsh policy towards the Hindus.
 Jizya, grazing tax and house tax were imposed on them.

Marketing System

Officers like Diwan-i-riyasat an Shahana-i-mandi

Appointed to regularize the market

All merchants were required to register themselves in the office of the Shahana-i-Mandi and sell their goods at fixed rates.

An Estimate

 Ala-ud-din was the first to raise a standing army,
 He built Alai Darwaza,
 Fort of Siri and the Palace of a thousand pillars.

End of the Dynasty

 Ala-ud-din died in 1316A.D
 Due to weak successors like Qutb-ud-din Mubarak Shah (1316-1320 A.D.)
 Nasir-ud-din Khusrav Shah (1320A.D.)
 Finally in 1320 A.D. a group of nobles led by Ghazi Malik, the Governor of Punjab,
 Invaded Delhi and captured the throne.
 Ghazi Malik assumed the title of Ghiyas-ud-din Tughluq and founded a new line of rulers at
Delhi known as the Tughluq Dynasty.

Tughluq Dynasty

• Ghiyas-ud-din Tughluq or Ghazi Malik was the founder of the Tughluq dynasty.

Domestic and Foreign Policies

 Ghiyas-ud-din restored order in his empire. Lot of importance was given to agriculture, irrigation, judicial, police and postal arrangements.
 From a humble origin he ascended the throne by his ability and hard work in 1320A.D.
 Warangal, Utkala or Orissa and Bengal were brought under his control
 He captured and imprisoned the Mongol leaders who invaded North India.

End of his rule

 While attending a reception for his victories at Bengal the pavilion
 On which he stood gave way and Ghiyas-ud-din was crushed to death in 1325 A.D.
 The crown prince Junakhan succeeded him.

Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq (1325-1361A.D.)

 Prince Junakhan took up the title Muhammad-bin-Tughluq in 1325 A.D.
 He stood for political and administrative unity of India.
 He captured Warangal in 1327A.D.

Domestic Policies

 Mohammed-bin-Tughlug raised the taxes in the Doab region to fill up his empty treasury.
 To avoid heavy taxes the people ran away to the forests.
 As cultivation was neglected severe famines occurred
 In order to protect his capital, he transferred his capital from Delhi to Devagiri
 He ordered both the government officials and the common people to shift to Devagiri.
 Due to practical difficulties he ordered them to return back to Delhi
 Copper currency system was introduced by the Sultan.
 The value of coins fell so low that the Sultan withdrew the copper token currency
 Mohammed-bin-Tughluq raised an army of 3, 70,000 men in order to conquer Tranoxiana, Khurasan and Iraq.
 Mohammed-bin-Tughluq’s policy of giving huge presents to Tamashirin, the Mongol leader, to avoid a Mongol invasion was a great burden on his exchequer.
 The domestic policies of Mohammed-bin-Tughluq were good but his operative measures
ended in a failure.
 His character of taking hasty decisions and inoperative policies were responsible for the decline of the Delhi Sultanate.

Firoz Tughluq (1 351-1 388 A.D.)

• Firoz Tughluq, the son of the younger brother of Ghiyas-ud-din Tughluq ascended the throne in 1351A.D.

Administrative Reforms

 He cancelled all Taquavi (agricultural) loans granted by Mohammed-bin-Tughluq.
 He increased the salary of the revenue officers.
 Unlawful and unjust cesses were abolished.

He collected four important taxes such as

1. Kharaj-1/10 of the produce of the land,
2. Khams-1/5 of the warbooty
3. Jizya-Poll Tax
3. Zakat-Tax on Muslims for specific religious purposes.

o He excavated many irrigation canals, constructed 50 dams, 150 wells and 100 bridges.
o He built the towns like Firozabad, Fatehabad, Jaunpur and Hissar.
o Firoz prohibited all kinds of mutilations and torture.
o He imposed Jizya on the Brahmans.
o An Employment Bureau, Marriage Bureau, (Diwani-i-kherat) and hospitals (Dar-
ul-shafa) were established.
o Diwan-i-lstibqaq was established to give financial help to the poor.

Foreign Policy

1. In 1353A.D. and 1359A.D. Firoz besieged Bengal.
2. He captured Jainagar and destroyed the Jagannath Temple at Puri.

An Estimate

 Firoz proved his greatness by
 His benevolent reforms and contributed to the material prosperity of his people.
 The Sultan himself wrote his autobiography called Futuhat-i-Firoz Shahi.
 He patronized the scholar Zia-ud-din Barani
 During his period a number of Sanskrit books on medicine, science and arts were translated into Persian.
 Kutab- Feroz Shahi was a book which dealt with Physics

LaterTughluqs

 Ghiyas-ud-din Tughluq Shah II, Abu Bakr Shah, Nasir-ud-din Mohammed Tughluq were the successors of Firoz.
 They were not very strong and powerful.
 By the end of the fourteenth century, most of the provinces under them became independent.
 Punjab and Delhi alone remained in the hands of the Tughluqs.
 It was during their period that the invasion of Timur took place.

Timur’s invasion (1398 A.D.)

 The ruler of Samarqand, Timur was attracted by the fabulous wealth of Hindustan.
 He invaded India during the period of Nasir Mahmud Tughluq.
 Occupied Delhi in 1398 A.D. Timur inflicted untold miseries on the people by plundering and massacring them

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