LODI DYNASTY Bahlol Lodi (1451 -1489 A. D.)

 The Lodi Dynasty was founded by Bahlol Lodi.
 It was the last of the ruling dynasties of the Sultanate period.
 He was a shrewd politician who clearly realized his limitations.
 He always took steps to satisfy his nobles.
 He conquered Mewat, Samthal, Sakit, Etawa and Gwalior. Hediedin 1489A.D.
 Bahlol Lodi did not take his seat on the throne but sat on the carpet in front of the throne along with his nobles in order to get their recognition and support.

Sikandar Shahi (1489-1517 A.D.)

 Bahlol’s son Sikandar Shahi (1489-1517 A.D.) ascended the throne under the title of Sikandar
Shah.
 He built the city of Agra which became an important administrative and cultural center of the
Lodi’s.
 He organized an efficient spy system.
 He improved agriculture and industry.
 He enjoyed “Shehnai “music. A reputed work on music titled “Lahjati-Sikandar Shahi was prepared during his reign.
 He was an orthodox Muslim and put serious restrictions on the Hindus.

End of Lodi Dynasty

 Ibrahim Lodi (1517-1526 A.D.) succeeded Sikandhar Lodi. He was an uncompromising and intolerant ruler.
 Ibrahim Lodi humiliated many of his nobles and killed some of them cruely.
 Dilwar khan Lodi the son of Daulat khan Lodi was treated cruely by Ibrahim Lodi.
 In order to take revenge on him, Daulat khan Lodi invited Babur the ruler of Kabul
 Babur accepted his invitation, invaded India and defeated Ibrahim Lodi in the first battle of
Panipat in 1 526 A. D.

Administration under the Delhi Sultanate

1. The Sultanate of Delhi which extended from 1206 A.D. to 1526 A.D., for a period of about 320 years
2. A Theocratic as well as a Military State.
3. Administration was based on Islamic laws.

Ministers to Sultan

1. Wazir
Prime Minister and Finance Minister
2. Diwani-I-Risalt
Foreign Affairs Minister.
3. Sadr-us-Suddar Minister of
Islamic Law.
4. Diwan-l-lnsha
Correspondence Minister
5. Diwan-I-Ariz
Defence or War Minister
6. Qazi-ul-quzar Minister of
Justice.
Central Administration

1. The Sultan was the head of the empire. He enjoyed vast powers.
2. Many officials were also appointed to take care of the administration.

Provincial Administration

1. The empire was divided into several Iqtas.
2. Iqtas were administered by Iqtadars
3. Iqtas were divided into smaller units called Shiqqs, Parganas and the Villages.
4. Important officials of the Pargana were the Amil or Munsif,

Local Administration

 The village was the smallest unit of administration.
 Local hereditary officers and the Panchayats in each village carried out the village administration.
 The Panchayat looked after education, sanitation, justice, revenue etc.
 The Central Government did not interfere in the village administration.

Revenue Administration

• Land revenue was the main source of income.

Judicial Administration

 The Sultan was the highest judicial authority.
 Qazi-ul-quzar was the Chief Judicial officer.
 There was a Quazi in every town.
 Usually severe punishments were given to the criminals.

Military Administration

 The Sultan was the Commander of the army
 The four divisions of the army were the Royal army, Provincial or Governor’s army, Feudal army and War Time army.

Social life of the Sultanate period

• The important characteristic of the society was the division of people on the basis of their nationality
• Foreign Muslims, Indian Muslims and Hindus.

Economic conditions of the people

 The people were mainly involved in agriculture and industry
 Textile industry was the primary industry.
 Sugar industry, paper industry, metal work, stone cutting, pearl diving, ivory and sandal works were the other industries of this period.

Textiles

1. Indian textiles were in great demand in foreign countries.
2. Bengal and Gujarat were famous for their quality fabrics.
3. Cotton, woollen and silk of different varieties were produced in large quantities.
4. The clothes were studded with gold, diamonds, pearls, silver and stones

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