PRESS UNDER BRITISH RULE

 In 1550 first press was established by Portuguese.
 In 1780 James Augustus Hicky started the first newspaper weekly in India called Bengal Gazette .
 This paper attacked both Warren Hastings and Chief Justice E Impey.
 In 1785 Madras Courier Weekly was started.
 In 1790 Bombay Courier and in 1791 Bombay Gazette merged with Bombay Herald in 1792.In 1818
Digdarshan was started as the first Bengali weekly by Marshman from Srirampore.
 On December 4th 1821 Raja Ram Mohan Roy started Samvad Kaumudi.
 In 1822 he published a weekly Mirat-ul-Akbar in Persian language.
 In 1837 Syed-ul-Akbhar a weekly in Urdu was published.
 In 1838 Dilli Akbhar was published. In 1840 Hindu Patriot was started by Harishchandra Mukherjee.
 In 1851 Gujarati fortnightly Rust Goftar was started by Dadabhai Naroji.In 1862 Indian Mirror was started .
 Initially the editor was Devendranath Tagore followed by Keshavchandra Sen and Narendranath Sen.
 On 28th September 1861 Bombay Times, Bombay Standard, Bombay Courier and The Telegraph merged together to form Times of India. Its editor was Robert Knight.
 It was established by Carey, Ward and marshman in 1818.Initially it was monthly but latter changed to weekly.
 In 1875 Statesman was started by Robert Knight. In 1890 Statesman and Friend of India merged to become Statesman.
 In 1865 Pioneer was started from Allahabad.
 On 20th September 1878, Hindu was started from Madras by G.Subramanium Aiyar as a weekly.later it was made triweekly in Oct 1883 when Kusturiangar became its editor.
 In 1889 it was made a daily.On 2nd January 1881 Kesari and Mahratta was started by Lokmanya Tilak and Kelkar.

Censor Act 1799 by Lord Wellesley
 Every newspaper should print the names of printer, editor and proprietor.

 Before printing any material it should be submitted to the secretary of Censorship. This Act was abolished by Hastings.
Licensing regulation Act 1823 by John Adam
 Every publisher should get a license from the government, defaulters would be fined Rs 400 and the press would be ceased by the government.
 Government has right to cancel the license.
 Charles Metcalf abolished the Act.
Vernacular Press Act IX 1878
 Vernacular press criticized British rule.
 Therefore British Govt came down heavily on vernacular press.
 Magistrates were authorised to ask any publisher of newspaper to give assurance of not publishing anything threatening peace and security.
 Fixed amount to be paid for security guarantee.
 The magistrate’s decision was final in any dispute.
 This law was not applicable to English Press.
 It was repealed by Lord Ripon in 1882.
Newspaper Act 1908
 Magistrate had the power to confiscate the assets of the press.
 Against this confiscation one can appeal to High Court in 15 days.
 Under this Act as many as 7 presses were forfeited.
Press Regulating Act 1942
 Registration of journalists was made mandatory.
 Limitations were imposed on the messages regarding civil disturbances.
 Prohibition of news was imposed regarding acts of sabotage.
 Limitations on headlines and space given to news on disturbances.
 Limitations on headlines and space given to news on disturbances.
 Govt had the authority on arbitrary censorship.

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