Ancient South India – Initial Historical timeline in perspective with Sangam Literature


Sangam Literature description


Geographical Location of South India


  • Surrounded by sea shores, Creating triangular peninsula,
  • One side western ghats, other side eastern ghats
  • Godawari, Krishana, Tung Bhadra, Kaveri –Important due to sacredness and live giving point of view
  • Nilgiri Plateau, Pal ghat,
  • Entrance to south India
  • Between Karnataka and Malbar – Coimbetore Plain
  • Near Godawari -Trimbak Ghati,
  • Sopara Kalyan – Primp Ghati,
  • Between Junnar and Konkan Nana Ghat
  • Between Ratnagiri and Kolhapur Aaramboli Ghat
  • Sea shores developed as Ports, used for International trades
  • Eastern Ghats have low altitudes comparatively so southern rivers flow towards east which used for local and connected transport


Sangam Literature-


  • Its Group/Mandal/Sangham/School of thoughts of Tamil Poets
  • No exact time and date formation of this literature is mentioned or proved or matched with other counter and prevailing literature in other parts of country, hence not much useful for Political situation at broader perspective
  • Created in large quantity but currently available is very small parts 2200+
  • Mainly Integrated Poems – Narinai, Kurundohai, Aengerunur,Patupattu, Paditupattu, Paripadal, Kalitohai, Ahnanur, Purnanur
  • Grammer – Tolkapiyam
  • Male + Female Poets
  • At end of the poems- Criticism, situation of creations and name of Poets available
  • Criticism are doubtful due to Exaggeration about related kings
  • Madura – 3 Sangam- Ireynar Aagpporul -8 AD – doubtful due to Exaggerated
  • Exaggeration – No other proof from other literature ,
  • Timelimes of Dynasty not proved
  • Life of these 3 Sangams is 9990 years which is exaggeration
  • Criticism is useful for identifying the dynasty
  • As per most historian- generation of 4-5 or 150 years
  • Mostly written abour Cher dynasty
  • Evolution of Tamil started, Existence of Sanskrit language
  • Sangam provide medial to flourish Tamil
  • Creation of Sangam – 100 AD to 250 AD


Initial history of South Indian and connection between Sangam Literature


  • Megalithic civilisation
  • Proof as Red and Black clay Potteries and Iron age utensils collected from Burial Center and Residential area from Karnatak, Andhra and Tamilnadu
  • Same type of Burial center and other pottery and utensils described in Sangam texts like Purnanur, Narinai, Patidutpattu
  • As per historian like Whiler, Hemenford, Ramsharan Sharma – sangam text describes history of

Megalithic age 300 BC to 2 AD

  • Life of Megalithic age – Residence at Slope of hills, irrigation from rivers started, then start living at deltas
  • Worship of Murugan and Kartikey as per Sangam Text
  • Effect of Northern Vaidik tradition on megalithic civilisation


Political View from description from Sangam Text :


  • Pandy, Chol, Cher – Dynasties
  • Cher
  • Territory of Krishna river
  • 100 BC all 3 existed – Pandy, Chol, Cher
  • Called as Tramir desh sangatam
  • Kharvel of Kaling defeated all 3
  • Udiyanjeral the Cher king- 130 AC, Exaggeration – He arrange foods for all Kurukshetra Worrior
  • Exaggeration of accolades because Kings provided shelter to poets
  • Son of Udiyanjerul – Nedunjerul – brothers Kuttuvan and Shenguttuvan, Madaramjeral Iramporai
  • All these king are dextrous in war strategy, naval exercise and administration


  • Great King of Chers was Perunjeral Iramporai defeated both Pandy and Chol
  • All were having Title of Adhiraj
  • Other contemporary rulers were Aay, Paari,
  • Exaggeration of accolades because Kings provided shelter to poets which creates confusion of ruling territory, timeline and administration
  • Chol
  • King of Chol – Karikal – 190 AD – description available in Pattinpaley, Shilpaddikaram and Pattupatu
  • He cut the forest for farming, irrigation available, business trade flourish
  • Done Vaidik yagnas
  • Ususally fighting – Karikal v/s Nalngilli v/s Nendujelian
  • Pandy
  • King Nendujelian – 290 AD – won the war of Taleyalanganam
  • Poets like Kilar, Nakkirar, Bhanguddi in Poems like Pattupatu, Maduraikanji – exaggeratly accolade his territorial expansion and winning
  • Bhangudi created Pattupatu described 3 Pandy kings Nediyon, Palshalai Mudukudumi, Nendujelian
  • Spectacle View :
  • Admin. Wastage of money on Poetry and cultural activity was very high
  • Existing of Kul-Sangh means Family Union in rulling
  • Male Head of family member ruled together
  • Continues hereditary dynasty did not exist, ruled altogether
  • Internal wars for ruling the state
  • Ethical behaviour, non-discrimination, parity, presence in Manranam (Daily General Meeting), Help

Brahmin and provide shelter to poets and other Cultural activist is expected

  • Agriculture was main source of revenue
  • Trade and business flourish
  • Foreign trade was prevailed very well
  • Professional army was necessary and available easly, Head of army called as Anadi, Exist of Female

Security guard was available

  • Marwa tribes was specialised for royal army and perform Vetchi ( Stealing of Cow ) as per Purunarur poem


Social Description by Sangam Literature :


  • Sangam text emphasised on social phenomena
  • At that time many caste and classis were rise in South India
  • Vaidik Yagna by Kings prevailed, usage of too much money for yagna and made Brahmin happy
  • Brahmin were placed at acme position in administration
  • Brahmin were eat non-vage and drink Tadi which might not consider demerit at that time
  • Velir, Arshu and Kavidi class of people were known as good warrior
  • Velir were landlords of Velaver class and others were small farmworker who had not enough land
  • Pulleyan, Shepherds and Aniyar are some of caste of social system
  • Forest tribes were in great misery
  • Royal army or admin. People were very rich
  • Economic disparity , discrimination and exploitation prevailed in system
  • Pattini Puja means worship of Wife/one women as ideologically and honestly were exist which indicate maternal or female dominated thinking of contemporary people
  • But overall situation for women were not in good, rich women stayed home poor were work on farm
  • As per Sangam age grammar encyclopaedia Tolkapiyyam, marriage was formed as one of the tradition/sanskar by Aryans in south with help of vedas,


  • There were 8 type of marriages like Panch Tinney, Kaikiddey, Pairundinney etc.
  • For Justic and disputes people used to go to Manram or meeting
  • There was quick justice system available and prisons were exist as per poem Kurul
  • Every village have their own Manram
  • Self-rule were granted for village by rulers, which was seeding as element of Gramsabha in today world


Economic Life described by Sangam Literature


  • Farming is main economical activity, barter system
  • Agriculture/ farm revenue was main source of income for state
  • All employee, Army and admin spending depend upon this revenue
  • Land of South Indian was compatible for Agriculture
  • Meat, Fish, Grain, Turmeric, Black Pepper, Fruits vegetable, cotton, silk, hand made articles, Ivory, Malmal
  • As per ancient quotation “ In the space of Elephant is laying on ground , as much as 7 men can feed if farming on this land occurs”
  • Kaveri water for irrigation
  • Farming of sugarcane started, after processing
  • Port for foreign trade : Puhar
  • Puhar- Very rich city due to foreign trade, Multi storey buildings and luxuries residence seen every where
  • Ships were anchored at port in luminous numbers with different types of flags which indicated their respected good like cotton, silk , etc
  • Other ports like Shaliyur, Bandar
  • Tondi, Mushir, Puhar – Ports, flooded with Greek, Roman, Persian, Mishr, Chinese, Arabi sailors and traders
  • Periplace of the Arithian Sea – book- is having proof of this trades which conglomerated with sangam literature.
Buy Test Series @quikrexam
error: Content is protected !!