SULTANATE OF DELHI

The period from 1206 A.D. to 1526 A.D. came to be known as the Sultanate period.

MAMALUK DYNASTY Qutb-ud-dinAibak (1206-1210A.D.)

 The rule of Qutb-ud-din Aibak the commander of Muhammad of Ghori marked the beginning of the Mamaluk rule
 He assumed sovereign powers on 24th June 1206 A.D.
 He did not issue coins or read the khutba in his name.
 He was the founder of the Turkish dominion in India.
 Mamaluk was the Quranic term for a slave

His immediate task

 To prevent Ala-ud-din Muhammad, the Shah of Khwarizm from occupying Ghazni and Delhi
 To prevent the Rajputs from recovering their principalities.
 To put down Ali Mardan Khan of Bengal, Qubacha and Yalduz.

An Estimate of Qutb – ud – din

 He built Quwat-ul-lslam mosque at Ajmer
 Dhai Dinka Jhonpara mosque at Delhi.
 He started the construction of Qutb Minar at Delhi.
 He also patronized Hassan Nizami and Fakhre Mudir
 He was called as Lakh Baksh or Giver of Lakhs for his generosity.

Iltutmish (1211 -1236 A.D.)

 Born in the llbari tribe of Central Asia.
 As a boy he was sold as a slave to Qutb-ud-dinAibak.
 Aibak made him as his son-in-law.
 He killed Aram Shah, the son of Aibak and became king in 1211A.D.

Conquest of Iltutmish

 Iltutmish was surrounded by enemies on all sides.
 As Yalduz considered himself to be the successor of Muhammad of Ghori, Iltutmish defeated him and put him to death.
 He captured Bhakkar, where Qubacha took shelter. Bengal was also brought under his control.
 Iltutmish put down the revolt of the Khilji Maliks of Bengal in 1230 A.D.
 Iltutmish refused to give shelter to Jalal-ud-din Mangabarni, the Shah of Khwarizm
 This pleased Chengiz Khan and so he did not invade India.
 In Rajputana, Iltutmish recaptured Ranthambore and Mandor. He defeated Udai Singh.
 Iltutmish re-established his authority over Badaun, Kanauj, Benaras and Katchar-the doab region between the Ganga and the Yamuna
 Qutb Minar was built in honour of Sufi Saint Khwaja Qutb-ud-din Baktiyar kaki who died in
Delhi. The construction started by Aibak was completed by Iltutmish

End of Iltutmish

 Iltutmish undertook an expedition against Bamiyan
 He nominated his daughter Raziah as his successor before his death.

Administration

 Iltutmish set up Iqtas under Iqtadars.
 The army was maintained by ‘A Corps of Forty’ or Chahalgan.
 He was the first Turkish ruler to introduce Arabic coinage.

Estimate

1. He completed the work of Aibak.
2. He built up the Turkish Kingdom in North India.

Coins of iltutmish

 The silver tanka of Iltutmish weighed 175 mgs and had an Arabic inscription on it.
 Iltutmish also introduced copper Jital.

Sultana Raziah (1236-1240 A.D.)

 Raziah was the first woman ruler of Sultanate period.
 She defeated and killed Firoz Shah who ascended the throne after the death of Iltutmish.
 She successfully restored the prestige of the Turkish Kingdom in India.
 Her rule ended in 1240A.D. because of a conspiracy by the Turkish nobles
 The successors of Raziah were weak and hence Balban rose to power in 1265A.D.

Successors of Raziah

 Bahram Shah 1240-1242A.D
 Alaud-din Masid 1242-1246A.D
 Nasir-ud-din Mahmud 1246 -1264A.D.

.Balban 1265-1 287A.D.

 Balban (1265-1 207 A.D.)
 Balban an llbari Turk became the ruler in 1265A.D.
 He believed in the Divine Right Theory of Kingship.
 He introduced Poibos- a form of salutation to the king by kissing his feet in the court.
 According to Lanepoole, “Balban, a slave, water carrier, huntsman, general, statesman and Sultan-is one of the most striking figures among the notable men in the long line of Kings of Delhi”.

Internal policies

 Balban curtailed and destroyed the ‘Corps of Forty’
 He introduced a well organised spy system.
 A separate military department called Diwan-i-arz was established.
 Many military posts were set up at Bhojapur, Patiali, Kampil and Jalali
Divine right Theory

The ruler was considered as a representative of God on earth.

5. Balban suppressed Tughril Khan,
6. Who declared his independence and recovered Bengal.
7. Balban was a great patron of learning
8. He patronized Amir Khusrau who is called as the ‘Parrot of India’ and Amir Hasan.

End of Balban

1. He was shocked when his son Mahmud was killed during an encounter with the Mongols.
2. He never recovered from the sorrow and died in 1287A.D.

End of the Mamaluk Dynasty

1. Balban was succeeded by Kaiqubad his grandson who was very incompetent.
2. The nobles made Kayumar, the infant son of Kaiqubad as ruler.
3. Jalal-ud-din Khilji, the commander of Balban became the regent of the infant king.

4. He killed Kaiqubad and Kayumar and became the ruler of Delhi

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