The Bahmani kingdom was the most powerful Muslim kingdom

Political History

 The founder of this dynasty was Hasan Gangu Bahmani.
 He was a Turkish officer of Devagiri.
 He established the independent Bahmani kingdom in 1347 A.D.
 His kingdom stretched from the Arabian Sea to the Bay of Bengal
 Included the whole of Deccan up to the river Krishna with its capital at Gulbarga

Muhammad Shah-I (1358-1377.A.D.)
 The next ruler was an able general and administrator.
 He defeated Bukka-I the ruler of Vijayanagar and Kapaya Nayaks of Warangal.

Muhammad Shah-ll (1378-1397.A.D.)
 Ascended the throne in 1378 A.D.
 He was peace loving and hence he developed friendly relations with his neighbours
 He built many mosques, madrasas (a place of learning) and hospitals

Feroz Shah Bahmani (1397-1422 A.D.)
1. He was a great genera
2. He defeated Deva Raya I, the Vijayanagar ruler.

Ahmad Shah (1422-1435 A.D.)

 Succeeded Feroz Shah Bahmani
 He was a cruel and merciless ruler
 He conquered the kingdom of Warangal and changed his capital from Gulbarga to Bidar.
 He died in 1435A.D.

Muhammad Shah-lll (1463-1482 A.D.)

 He became the Sultan at the age of nine in 1463A.D.
 Muhammad Gawan became the regent of the infant ruler.
 Under his able guidance the Bahmani kingdom became very powerful
 Muhammad Gawan defeated the rulers of Konkan, Sangameshwar, Orissa and Vijayanagar.

Muhammad Gawan

 He was a very wise scholar and able administrator.
 He improved the administration, organized finances, encouraged public education, Reformed the revenue system, disciplined the army and eleminated corruption. Muhammad Gawan fell a
victim to the jealousy of Deccan Muslims.

 He was falsely accused by them and so was persecuted and sentenced to death in 1481 by
Muhammad Shah III.

The Five Muslim Dynasties
Muhammad Shah-lll died in 1482
His successors were weak and the Bahmani Kingdom disintegrated into five kingdoms namely

1. Bijapur
2. Ahmednagar
3. Bera
4. Golconda
5. Bidar

• The Sultans followed a Feudal type of administration.
• The kingdom was divided into many provinces called Tarafs
• Each Taraf was under a Governor called Tarafdar or Amir.

Golgumbaz in Bijapur is called the whispering gallery.
This is so, because when one whispers in one corner, a lingering echo is heard in the opposite corner.

Contribution to Education, Art and Architecture

1. The Bahmani Sultans gave great attention to education. They encouraged Arabic and Persian learning.
2. Urdu also flourished during this period
3. Numerous mosques, madarasas and libraries were built
4. The Juma masjid at Gulbarga,
5. The Golconda fort
6. The Golgumbaz at Bijapur
7. The Madarasas of Muhammad Gawan
8. Decline of Bahmani Kingdom
9. The constant wars between the Bahmani and Vijayanagar rulers,
10. Inefficient and weak successors of Muhammad Shah III
11. Rivalry between the Bahmani rulers and foreign nobles were a few causes for the downfall of the Bahmani kingdom

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